Brief Analysis of Indonesia Butterflies Specimen Datasets from Museum Zoologi Bogor

Indonesia has a collection of butterfly specimens stored at Museum Zoologi Bogor (MZB). The specimens came from many field observations by many people which date back as early as 1900s. Mrs Djunijanti Peggie and her colleagues at Research Center For Biology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) that are responsible for the collections have done excellent work in maintaining and curating the specimens. Mrs. Peggie has also made her curation work available as datasets at Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) website. My current analysis is based on these datasets.


From visualization of the location data from which the specimens were collected, we can conclude that the collections were concentrated in Java, particularly Jawa Barat. This concentration of collection area suggests that we should conduct more field samplings in areas outside of Java. From the collection years data, we can see that collections grew in size quite recently, apart from the old specimens from pre-independence era. The collection started growing rapidly since early 2000s, reaching a peak at between year 2005 – 2010, and falling abruptly between 2015 – 2020. Lastly, from the data we can conclude that the most common kind of butterflies found in the collections are species of the genera Papilio and Graphium.


Being the largest zoological specimen repository in Indonesia, we can assume that the butterflies collection at MZB is the largest collection of butterflies specimens in the country. There are 12 datasets of Indonesian butterflies specimen collections from Museum Zoologi Bogor (MZB) deposited at GBIF website.The butterfiles datasets are classified into genera in which one dataset is dedicated to one genus. After the datasets are combined, the total of specimens recorded there are 8610 specimens. This number is most likely only a part of the whole collections because there are usually many more specimens that are still unidentified, hence are not listed in the curated specimens data.

Specimens Count per Province

Visualization of the location data are based on province data. These province are depicted as specimens per province and specimen-to-province-area-size ratio.

Museum Zoologi Bogor, Indonesia Butterflies Specimen Dataset : Specimen Count to Province

The specimen count to province chart shows the dominance of collections from Jawa Barat, followed by Papua, South Sulawesi, Maluku, followed by other areas. Jawa Barat is the most dominant area of collection. All major Indonesian islands has a significant part in the collections, although many provinces are still poorly represented. Two provinces are completely absent from the data: the capital city DKI Jakarta and Kalimantan Selatan. The absence of DKI Jakarta data is quite surprising since it is the capital city of Indonesia. I think there should be data on butterflies collections from DKI Jakarta to get a representation from a highly urbanized area of the country.

Museum Zoologi Bogor, Indonesia Butterflies Specimen Dataset : Province to Ratio of Specimen Count – Province Size

Comparing speciment province data to province area size produces ratio of speciment count – province size. The chart of this ratio shows that Banten is the most dominant collection area. This is probably due to the extensive collection compared to the relatively small province area. Jawa Barat as the second most dominant category in this chart shows that the area is the most dominant collection area overall. This suggests that further collections should be conducted outside of Jawa Barat. The island provinces, such as Nusa Tenggara Barat, Maluku, Maluku Utara show significant ratio of speciment count – province size. This is probably due to their small area size. On the contrary, collections from Papua that comprise the second largest number of specimens in the overall collections show only a little portion when seen in the ratio of specimen count – province size. This suggests that eventhough the collections from Papua are relatively large, it should be added more to make it more representative in terms of province area size.

Genus and Species Frequency

The top four most abundant species in the collections are Papilio polytes, Papilio memnon, Graphium agamemnon, Papilio helenus. Coincidentally, their genera, Papilio and Graphium, are also the most dominant genera in the collections. Other genera have much lower frequency than those top two genera. In fact, the top 12 of the species in the specimens are from the genus Papilio or Graphium. This suggests their dominant abundance in the collections and most likely also their dominance in the field.

Museum Zoologi Bogor, Indonesia Butterflies Specimen Dataset – Species Frequency
Museum Zoologi Bogor, Indonesia Butterflies Specimen Dataset – Genus Frequency

Specimen Count per Years

The specimen count per years shows a rise in the collection since the 1980s, growing rapidly in early 2000s, but slowly declining since then. After 2015, the collection additions declined rapidly. Interestingly, specimens from pre-independence years (1940s) form a prominent part of the collection. Small additions occured still in several years after independence (1945) but in the revolutionary years (1965 onwards) the additions declined sharply. This suggests the correlation of specimen additions with the ongoing condition of the country.

Museum Zoologi Bogor, Indonesia Butterflies Specimen Dataset : Specimen Count per Years

This small analysis is just a little glimpse of what insights the MZB butterfly specimen datasets can reveal. Further and deeper analyses should be conducted in order to obtain more meaningful conclusions.

CITATIONS / DATASET SOURCES

Peggie D (2020). Atrophaneura butterfly specimens at Museum Zoologi Bogor, Indonesia. Version 1.9. Research Center For Biology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). Occurrence dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/oqtbwj accessed via GBIF.org on 2020-05-12.

Peggie D (2019). Chilasa butterfly specimens at Museum Zoologi Bogor, Indonesia. Version 1.12. Research Center For Biology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). Occurrence dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/7ypvyz accessed via GBIF.org on 2020-05-12.

Peggie D (2019). Cressida butterfly specimens at Museum Zoologi Bogor, Indonesia. Version 1.6. Research Center For Biology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). Occurrence dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/xcjmd8 accessed via GBIF.org on 2020-05-12.

Peggie D (2020). Graphium butterfly specimens at Museum Zoologi Bogor, Indonesia. Version 1.3. Research Center For Biology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). Occurrence dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/ioipbd accessed via GBIF.org on 2020-05-12.

Peggie D (2020). Lamproptera butterfly specimens at Museum Zoologi Bogor, Indonesia. Version 1.3. Research Center For Biology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). Occurrence dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/ovlzf2 accessed via GBIF.org on 2020-05-12.

Peggie D (2019). Losaria butterfly specimens at Museum Zoologi Bogor, Indonesia. Version 1.1. Research Center For Biology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). Occurrence dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/7e7et5 accessed via GBIF.org on 2020-05-12.

Peggie D (2019). Meandrusa butterfly specimens at Museum Zoologi Bogor, Indonesia. Version 1.10. Research Center For Biology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). Occurrence dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/dcgtto accessed via GBIF.org on 2020-05-12.

Peggie D (2020). Ornithoptera butterfly specimens at Museum Zoologi Bogor, Indonesia. Version 1.3. Research Center For Biology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). Occurrence dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/ogmz9r accessed via GBIF.org on 2020-05-12.

Peggie D (2020). Pachliopta butterfly specimens at Museum Zoologi Bogor, Indonesia. Version 1.4. Research Center For Biology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). Occurrence dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/12hlih accessed via GBIF.org on 2020-05-12

Peggie D (2020). Papilio butterfly specimens at Museum Zoologi Bogor, Indonesia. Version 1.4. Research Center For Biology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). Occurrence dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/xgdniw accessed via GBIF.org on 2020-05-12.

Peggie D (2019). Trogonoptera butterfly specimens at Museum Zoologi Bogor, Indonesia. Version 1.6. Research Center For Biology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). Occurrence dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/vg2rix accessed via GBIF.org on 2020-05-12.

Peggie D (2020). Troides butterfly specimens at Museum Zoologi Bogor, Indonesia. Version 1.1. Research Center For Biology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). Occurrence dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/isqrqq accessed via GBIF.org on 2020-05-12.

Publikasi Statistik Indonesia. Tabel Luas Daerah dan Jumlah Pulau Menurut Provinsi, 2002-2016. Direktorat Jenderal Pemerintahan Umum, Kementerian Dalam Negeri. Last update 21 Nov 2017. https://www.bps.go.id/statictable/2014/09/05/1366/luas-daerah-dan-jumlah-pulau-menurut-provinsi-2002-2016.html. Accessed on 2020-05-12.